Pit option. Pit: What is Pit? Options and Futures Glossary, Meaning, Definition
Printable page generated Tuesday, 5 JanUse 'Print preview' to check the number of pages and printer settings. Print functionality varies between browsers. In most rural situations, a dry latrine of some sort will probably be the most appropriate technology to choose.
This study session will provide some pit option details about the different types of latrine and how they should be constructed. It should be noted that we do not have space here pit option include all the technical construction details. This is not a construction manual. Although the techniques described are not complicated, the latrines need to be designed and built in the correct way and you may need to seek out further details or expert advice if you wish to promote the installation of some of these different types of latrine.
Learning Outcomes for Study Session 20 When you have studied this session, you should be able to: SAQ SAQs Pit option types of dry sanitation technology were included in the list of improved facilities in Study Session What were they? Pit latrine with slab, ventilated improved pit VIP latrine and ecological sanitation. Pit latrines are basic structures that can be adapted easily into different types of latrines such as VIP latrines and ecological sanitation systems.
These other latrines share many common features of simple pit latrines; therefore, focusing first on pit latrines will help you pit option understand the other sanitation technologies as well. They consist of a pit dug in the ground and a cover slab or floor above the hole Figure Pit latrines must have a cleanable cover slab in order to be considered as improved sanitation systems. The excreta both faeces and urine drop through the hole to enter the dry pit.
Pit latrines should be constructed on a slight mound so they are higher than the surrounding ground and water at the surface will flow away from the hole.
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They should also have a lid that can be placed over the hole to reduce problems with flies and odours. They may have a squat pan or a raised footrest to make using the latrine more convenient.
Hygiene and Environmental Health Module: 20. Latrine Construction
Pit option pit is often lined but the bottom remains binary options all secrets, allowing the liquid to drain into the soil and leaving mc news trading solids behind. Figure Source: WHO and IRC,Linking technology choice pit option operation and maintenance in the context of community water supply and sanitation: A reference document for planners and project staff Pit latrines should also have an upper part, called the superstructure, to provide protection from the rain and sun, and privacy and comfort for the user Figure In double pits, pit option one is filling with excreta, the second pit remains out of service.
When the first pit is filled with excreta up to about 50 cm below the slab, it is taken out of use and the remaining space is filled with grass and vegetation materials affiliate program of binary options with a website can be composted.
You then use the second pit until that is full. Meanwhile, the first pit will stay sealed for a period of 6—9 months, during which time the waste will decompose and any pathogenic microorganisms will die. After this period, the material humus soil in the first pit can be taken out manually.
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Humus or humic is used to describe organic matter that has been stabilised by decomposition processes. It is safe to handle and readily used as fertiliser in agriculture or can be disposed of safely. This is the principle of ecological sanitation that is described further in Section They also have other advantages: They do pit option require water so are appropriate in areas where there is no adequate water supply. Squatting is normal to many people and thus is acceptable to users. Alternating double pits will allow the excreta to drain, degrade and transform into a nutrient-rich, safe humic material that can be used to improve soils.
They avoid contamination of surface water and top soil if properly installed and maintained. They can be constructed with minimum cost using local material and local skills. The presence of properly constructed slabs will allow easy cleaning and avoid flies and unsightliness.
However, pit latrines are not without limitations. There may be a foul odour from the pit and they can be a favourable place for the breeding of flies and mosquitoes. With single pits, a new pit needs to be dug every time one gets full.
Pit option disadvantages can be overcome by proper design, construction and usage.
For example, if the superstructure is pit option option properly constructed, it may discourage use of the latrine by family members. Children may be discouraged from using the latrine if the slab is not designed with them in mind and is too big for them.
Use of excess water pit option less compostable materials for anal cleansing should be avoided because it may affect the decomposition rate of human excreta. It should not be nearer than 6 m or farther than 50 m from the house.
The direction of the wind should be away from the main house. If there is a well in the compound, the latrine should be located as far away from it as possible on the downhill side to avoid possible seeping and contamination of groundwater.
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The faecal microorganisms may migrate from the pit through the soil, however, the degree that this happens varies with the type of soil, moisture levels and other environmental factors. It is, therefore, difficult to estimate the necessary distance between a pit and a water source, but 30—50 m is the recommended minimum, with an absolute minimum of 15 m.
The size of the pit depends on the number of people using it and the design period, i. Typically, the pit should be at least 3 m deep for a family of five for a design period of three to five years.
The diameter should be at least pit option m; up to 1. As you may remember from Study Session 19, you need to consider the geology, soil type and topography the slope of the land pit option considering sanitation technologies. In flood-prone areas, it is advisable to raise the mound of the latrine and prepare diversion ditches around it. When the soil condition is rocky and it is impossible to dig a deep pit, the depth of the pit can be extended by building upwards with concrete rings or blocks.
However, care must be taken to ensure the structure remains watertight.
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The level of the water table must also be taken into consideration. The pit must be entirely above the water table at all times of the year.
If the water table is near the surface of the ground, the waste in the pit may contaminate the groundwater. Lining the pit prevents it from collapsing and provides support to the superstructure. The pit lining material can be brick, rot-resistant timber, concrete, stones, or mortar plastered on to the soil.
If the soil is stable i.
The bottom of the pit should remain unlined to allow the percolation of liquids out of the pit. The superstructure should be built using locally available materials. Look again at Figure What pit option have been used for the different superstructures in these four pictures? The latrine in the picture at top left has sticks with leaves for the walls and a plastic roof. The latrine at top right is made of sticks and grasses. Pit option lower left, the latrine has walls of mud with a corrugated plastic or metal roof.
The latrine at lower right is made of corrugated metal. The cover slab needs to be strong and have a smooth surface pit option it can be cleaned easily.
It may be made of concrete or termite- or rot-resistant timber, with or without stones and mud covering. Various designs of slab are used Figure Note also the vent pipe and lid.