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According to the implementation technique, the following types of options are distinguished

CS Assignment 1 Sample Answers 1.

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What are the most important differences between generic software product development and custom software development? What might this mean in practice for users of generic software products? The essential difference is that in generic software product development, the specification is owned by the product developer.

For custom product development, the specification is owned and controlled by the customer.

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The implications of this are significant — the developer can quickly decide to change the specification in response to some external change e. For users of generic products, this means they have no control over the software specification so cannot control the evolution of the product. Based according to the implementation technique your own knowledge of some of the application types discussed in the textbook chapter 1, section 1.

Some systems such as embedded systems in consumer devices are extremely expensive to change; others, must change frequently in response to changing requirements e. Systems which are very expensive to change need extensive upfront analysis to ensure that the requirements are consistent and extensive validation to ensure that the system meets its specification.

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This is not cost effective for systems that change very rapidly. Different systems have different priorities for non-functional requirements. For according to the implementation technique, a real-time control system in an aircraft has safety as its principal priority; an interactive game has responsiveness and usability as its priority.

The techniques used to achieve safety are not required for interactive gaming; the extensive UI design required for games is not needed in safety-critical control systems.

Some software systems have a relatively short lifetime many web-based systemsothers have a lifetime of tens of years large command and control systems.

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Some systems have to be delivered quickly if they are to be useful. The techniques used to develop short-lifetime, rapid delivery systems e. Explain why there are fundamental ideas of software engineering that apply to all types of software systems. Because of all software systems have common quality attributes, including availability, modifiability, performance, security and safety, testability and usability, the fundamental software ideas provides common solutions or tactics to support those qualities.

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It certainly needs a plan-driven approach to development with the requirements fast money on the Internet without investment analysed.

A waterfall model is therefore the most appropriate approach to use, perhaps with formal transformations between the different development stages. Incremental development with, perhaps, some UI prototyping is the most appropriate model.

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An agile process may be used. Therefore, a reuse-based approach is likely to be appropriate for this. An incremental development approach is the most appropriate as the system requirements will change as real user experience with the system is gained. Explain why incremental development is the most effective approach for developing business software systems.

Why is this model less appropriate for real-time systems engineering?

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Business software systems usually complex, software intensive, and frequently being changes when business goals or processes are changed. So incremental development is better. Real-time systems usually involve many hardware components which are not easy to change and cannot be incremental. Also real-time systems usually safety critical which needed be built based on well planned process.

Suggest why it is important to make a distinction between developing the user requirements and developing system requirements in the requirements engineering process.

Consult each faction involved for information State the problem specifically Identify what standard or expectation is violated Determine in which process the problem lies Avoid trying to solve the problem without data 2. Generate alternative solutions Include all involved individuals in the generating of alternatives Specify alternatives consistent with organizational goals Specify short- and long-term alternatives Brainstorm on others' ideas Seek alternatives that may solve the problem 3. Evaluate and select an alternative Evaluate alternatives relative to a target standard Evaluate all alternatives without bias Evaluate alternatives relative to established goals Evaluate both proven and possible outcomes State the selected alternative explicitly 4. Implement and follow up on the solution Plan and implement a pilot test of the chosen alternative Gather feedback from all affected parties Seek acceptance or consensus by all those affected Establish ongoing measures and monitoring Evaluate long-term results based on final solution 1.

There is a fundamental difference between the user and the system requirements that mean they should be considered separately. They should be expressed in natural language and may not be expressed in great detail, to allow some implementation flexibility. They may also be used in situations where development is outsourced and the development team need a complete specification of what should be developed. The system requirements are developed after user requirements have been established.

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Explain how the principles underlying agile methods lead to the accelerated development and development of software. By taking advantages of individual skills and ability and by ensuring that the development team knows what each other are doing, the overheads of formal communication and process assurance are avoided. This means that the team can focus on the development of working software. This contributes to accelerated development because time is not spent developing, checking and managing documentation.

This allows useful functionality to be developed and delivered earlier than would be possible if contracts were required.

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Agile developers argue rightly that being responsive to change is more effective than following a plan-based process because change is inevitable whatever process is used. There is significant overhead in changing plans to accommodate change and the inflexibility of a plan means that work may be done that is later discarded.

When would you recommend against the use of an agile method for developing a software system?

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Explain your answer. Agile methods should probably not be used when the software is being developed by teams who are not co-located. If any of the individual teams use agile methods, it is very difficult to coordinate their work with other teams. Furthermore, the informal communication which is an essential part of agile methods is practically impossible to maintain.

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Agile methods should probably also be avoided for critical systems where the consequences of a specification error are serious. In those circumstances, a system specification that is available before development starts makes a detailed specification analysis possible.

However, some ideas from agile approaches such as test first development are certainly applicable to critical systems. Discover ambiguities or omissions in the following statement of requirements for part of a ticket-issuing systems: An automated ticket-issuing system sells rail tickets.

Users select their destination and input a credit card and a personal identification number.

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The rail ticket is issued and their credit card account charged. When the user presses the start button, a menu display of potential destinations is activated, along with a message to the user to select a destination. Once a destination has been selected, users are requested to input their credit card. Its validity is checked and the user is then requested to input a personal identifier. When the credit transaction has been validated, the ticket is issued.

Rewrite the above description using the structured approach described in chapter 4 of the textbook. Resolve the identified ambiguities in an appropriate way. Write a set of non-functional requirements for the ticket-issuing system, setting out its binary options turbo signals reliability and response time.

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All these are availability requirements — note that these vary according to the time of day. Failures when most people are traveling are less acceptable than failures when there are few customers. This tells the customer that the potentially time consuming activity of validation is still in progress and that the system has not simply failed.

You have been asked to develop a system that will help with planning large-scale events and parties such us weddings, graduation celebrations, birthday parties, etc. Develop a sequence diagram showing the interactions involved when a student registers a course in a university. Courses may have limited enrolment, so the registration process must include checks that places are available. Assume that the student accesses an electronic course catalog to find out about available courses.

The system should allow the telephone customer to dial in from any the following types of options are distinguished, type a sequence of numbers the following types of options are distinguished as tonesand play any recorded messages.

Explain why design conflicts might arise when designing an architecture for which both availability and security requirements are the most important non-functional requirements. The cleaner must be able to sense walls and other obstructions. For each of the following architectural patterns described in the textbook, describe a real-world or example application system which should be designed using the pattern.