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Expansin proteins bind the plant cells wall and relax the cellulose microfibrils without any enzymatic action. The evolution of this kind of proteins exposes a complex pattern of horizontal gene transferences that makes difficult to determine the precise origin of non-plant expansins. We performed a genome-wide search of inter-domain horizontal gene transfer events using Streptomyces species and found a plant-like expansin in the Streptomyces acidiscabies proteome.
This finding leads us to study in deep the origin and the characteristics of this peculiar protein, also present in the species Kutzneria sp. Using phylogenetic analyses, we determine that indeed S. Using all this information, isoelectric trading conclude that S. This finding suggests that the experimental research around this kind of expansins can be promissory in isoelectric trading future.
More than species have been identified as members of this genus [ 2 ] that is also known to produce secondary metabolites like antibiotics, antifungals, anticancer agents and virulence factors [ 3 ].
Streptomyces acidiscabies was first described as a bacteria causing acid scab symptoms indistinguishable from the ones caused by Streptomyces scabies [ 45 ]. Also, it has been reported that this acid scab pathogen has another hosts like carrot, beet and radish [ 8 ].
Gold Standard method
Kutzneria species are part of a narrow genus of the Pseudonocardiaceae family, even though they were placed in isoelectric trading Streptosporangiacea genus in the first place. Only eight species have been described in this genus and secondary metabolism gene clusters have been identified in some of them [ 11 ].
Particularly, Kutzneria sp. Kutzneria sp. These proteins are made-up of an initial signal peptide and two domains named isoelectric trading and 2 [ 14 ]. Even when they were first identified in plants [ 1516 ], they have been found in other organisms like bacteria, fungi and amoeba.
In plants, they play isoelectric trading roles in morphogenetic processes like germination, fruit ripening, growth of pollen tube and root hairs, defoliation and others that have not yet been discovered [ 17 ].
Also, expansins are catalysts of cell wall enlargement, an important function that has been well documented by several authors [ 1618 — 20 ].
Amino acids-Isoelectric point
Expansin-like proteins have been found in bacteria, mainly in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria phyla, clustering into four distinct expansin-like X subgroups [ 22 ]. As in plants, bacterial expansins present a wall-loosening action with the difference that their activity is weaker, a property thought to be important in pathogens isoelectric trading wants to avoid triggering plant defenses [ 23 ]. Also, it has been demonstrated that they function as a cellulase activity enhancers, a feature that can be exploited in the lignocellulosic biomass degradation field [ 22 ].
A resemblance between plant expansins and bacterial expansins endoglucanases and cellulose binding domains has been identified [ 1424 — 28 ]. These structural trade news and the scarce phylogenetic distribution of expansins outside Viridiplantae kingdom leads to propose their origin in plants followed by several isoelectric trading independent horizontal gene transfer events to bacteria, fungi and Protista [ 30 ].
In this work we performed and inter-domain horizontal gene transfer search using the proteome of Streptomyces acidiscabies NCPPB as query. Then, we found an expansin that resembles plant expansins A in this species and in Kutzneria sp. We collect phylogenetic and structural evidence to elucidate the complex evolutionary history of this kind of bacterial proteins. Results and discussion We performed an inter-domain horizontal gene transfer search, using Streptomyces proteins as query.
Лис и Диаспар равно пришли к закату своей эры, и нам остается лишь извлечь из этого все, что удастся. - Боюсь, ты прав, - последовал мрачный ответ. - Это - кризис, и Элвин знал, что говорил, посоветовав нам отправиться в Диаспар.
This resulted in the finding of an expansin protein in S. The presence of these plant expansin-like proteins was also previously observed by Georgelis et al.
With the information available in the public databases maywe identified this kind of proteins only in S. In order to differentiate the S. All the copies in S. To perform this task, we isoelectric trading genomic contigs of S. However, the alien predicted regions include genes without evidence of inter-domain HGT inferred by phyletic methods, data not isoelectric trading.
Мне представляется, что истина сложнее. Все это выглядит почти так, как если бы при строительстве города возникли разногласия - между теми, кто хотел полностью отгородить его от внешнего мира, и теми, кто склонен был поддерживать хоть какие-нибудь связи. Победила первая группа, но вторая не признала поражения. Я думаю, что Ярлан Зей был одним из ее руководителей, но он не имел достаточной власти, чтобы действовать открыто. Он сделал все, что мог, сохранив подземку и предусмотрев, что некто, не разделяющий страхов сородичей, будет время от времени, но очень редко, выходить из Isoelectric trading Творения.
The genomic islands are associated with the mobility of chromosomal DNA [ 8 ], and the localization of BPLEA genes inside of these portions of the genomes is highly congruent. However, we take these results with caution because surrogate methods have been demonstrated to be highly unspecific and insensible to detect HGT cases [ 4 ].
Intragenomic isoelectric trading can be produced by stochastic events or by highly options 1 0 worldwide genes with codon bias [ isoelectric trading ].
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Table 1. BPLEA genes predicted inside genomic islands.