What is the token used for
Password types[ edit ] All tokens contain some secret information that is used to prove identity.
There are four different ways in which this information can be used: Asynchronous password token for online banking. Static password token The device contains a password which is physically hidden not visible to the possessorbut which is transmitted for each authentication.
Banking tokens - OTP authentication and signature devices
This type is vulnerable to replay attacks. Synchronous dynamic password token A timer is used to rotate through various combinations produced by a cryptographic algorithm. The token and the authentication server must what is the token used for synchronized clocks.
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Asynchronous password token A one-time password is generated without the use of a clock, either from a one-time pad or cryptographic algorithm.
Challenge response token Using public key cryptographyit is possible to prove possession of a private key without revealing that key. The authentication server encrypts a challenge typically a random number, or at least data with some random parts with a public key; the device proves it possesses a copy of the matching private key by providing the decrypted challenge.
Main article: One-time password Time-synchronized one-time passwords change constantly at a set time interval; e.
To do this some sort of synchronization must exist between the client 's token and the authentication server. For disconnected tokens this time-synchronization is done before the token is distributed to the client.
A security token is a portable device that authenticates a person's identity electronically by storing some sort of personal information. The owner plugs the security token into a system to grant access to a network service. The Basics of a Security Token Security tokens come in many different forms, including hardware tokens that contain chips, USB tokens that plug into USB ports, and wireless Bluetooth tokens or programmable electronic key fobs, which activate devices remotely for example, to gain access to a car or apartment building.
Other token types do the synchronization when the token is inserted into an input device. The main problem with time-synchronized tokens is that they can, over time, become unsynchronized. Most also cannot have replaceable batteries and only last up to 5 years before having to be replaced — so there is additional cost.
Each password is unguessable, even when previous passwords are known. The open source OAuth algorithm is standardized; other algorithms are covered by US patents. Each password is observably unpredictable and independent of previous ones, whereby an adversary would be unable to guess what the next password may be, even with knowledge of all previous passwords.
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- Bank tokens - Online authentication & signing ()
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Physical types[ edit ] Tokens can contain chips with functions varying from very simple to very complex, including multiple what is the token used for methods.
The simplest security tokens do not need any connection to a computer. The tokens have a physical display; the authenticating user simply enters the displayed number to log in.
Other tokens connect to the computer using wireless techniques, such as Bluetooth. These tokens transfer a key sequence to the local client or to a nearby access point.
Alternatively, another form of token that has been widely available for many years is a mobile device which communicates using an out-of-band channel like voice, SMSor USSD.
Still other tokens plug into the computer, and may require a PIN. Depending on the type of the token, the computer OS will then either read the key from the token and perform a cryptographic operation on it, or ask the token's firmware to perform this operation.
A related application is the hardware dongle required by some computer programs to prove ownership of the software.
Therefore, a JWT typically looks like the following. Payload The second part of the token is the payload, which contains the claims. Claims are statements about an entity typically, the user and additional data.
Commercial solutions are provided by a variety of vendors, each with their own proprietary and often patented implementation of variously used security features. Token designs meeting certain security standards are certified in the United States as compliant with FIPSa federal security standard.
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- Overview[ edit ] An access token is an object encapsulating the security identity of a process or thread.
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Tokens without any kind of certification are sometimes viewed as suspect, as they often do not meet accepted government or industry security standards, have not been put through rigorous testing, and likely cannot provide the same level of cryptographic security as token solutions which have had their designs independently audited by third-party agencies. Disconnected tokens have neither a physical nor logical connection to the client computer.
Tokens Tokens There are basically two main types of tokens that are related to identity: ID tokens and access tokens. For example, if there's an app that uses Google to log in users and to sync their calendars, Google sends an ID token to the app that includes information about the user.
They typically do not require a special input device, and instead use a built-in screen to display the generated authentication data, which the user enters manually themselves via a keyboard or keypad.
Disconnected tokens are the most common type of security token used usually in combination with a password in two-factor authentication for online identification.
Tokens in this category automatically transmit the authentication information to the client computer once a physical connection is made, eliminating the need for the user to manually enter the authentication information.
However, in order to use a connected token, the appropriate input device must be installed.
The most common types of physical tokens are smart cards and USB tokens, which require a smart card reader and a USB port respectively. Increasingly, Universal 2nd Factor U2F tokens, supported by the open specification group FIDO Alliance have become popular for consumers with mainstream browser support beginning in and supported by popular websites and social media sites.
Older PC card tokens are made to work primarily with laptops.
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The audio jack port is a relatively practical method to establish connection between mobile devices, such as iPhone, iPad and Android, and other accessories. The most well known device is called Squarea credit card reader for iPhone and Android.
Security Token Definition
Some use a special purpose interface e. Tokens can also be used as a photo ID card. Cell phones and PDAs can also serve as security tokens with proper programming.