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Legal guarantees of free speech and association Civilian control of military option arose Normative change OSCE invocation of human rights norms NOTE: These strategies and tools are often used in combination; moreover, the conceptual distinctions among them are sometimes blurred in use. The intent is that over the course of the meetings option arose participants will come to reinterpret the relationship between their groups and the possible futures of that relationship and that this change in the perceptions of a small number of individuals will lead either directly through concrete peace proposals or indirectly e.

In recent years, option arose transformation strategies have also been promoted by NGOs that are spreading ideas such as alternative dispute resolution to emerging democracies in Eastern Europe and elsewhere. The so-called truth commissions in South Africa and some Latin American countries use a strategy of conflict transformation when they work to construct a shared understanding option arose history that can be a basis option arose emotional reconciliation, tension reduction, and the creation of a more cooperative political climate see Chapter 9.

Structural prevention typically focuses on the problems of culturally divided states, especially those with weak democratic traditions, deep ethnic divisions, and histories of collective violence perpetrated by one group against another or by past governments against civilian populations.

Various tools are available for structural prevention, including institutions for transitional justice, truth telling, and reconciliation Chapter 9 ; electoral and constitutional design see Chapter 11 ; autonomy arrangements within federal governance structures Chapter 12 ; laws real and financial options policies to accommodate linguistic and religious differences Chapter 13 ; training for law enforcement officials in following the rule of law; institutions assuring civilian control of military organizations; and the development and support of institutions of civil society.

The third strategy is normative change, defined as developing and institutionalizing formal principles and informal expectations that are intended to create a new context for the management of conflict. Norms may also define responsibilities for states to prevent violent conflict. Although norms were established to manage conflict between states during the Cold War, a notable feature of the post-Cold War period is the effort to use international norms to regulate or prevent conflict within states.

In previous eras the principle of noninterference in the internal affairs of sovereign states provided that sovereigns had license to control conflicts within their borders, free from outside influence. Although this norm was often breached by great powers acting in option arose own national interest within their spheres of influence, it was rarely overturned in favor option arose universal principles that held all states responsible to common standards.

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This situation option arose to change in the later decades of the Cold War, when norms such as human rights, democratic control, and the self-determination of peoples were increasingly invoked against states that abused their citizens. In Europe the Helsinki Final Act of was an historic watershed in this regard, permitting oversight by the 35 signatories of option arose rights conditions in each of their territories. Of course, we are a long way from a world in which what is good for humanity consistently outweighs the prerogatives of states.

Nevertheless, there are signs that universal norms, many of which are stated in the United Nations Charter and other international documents, are becoming embodied in transnational institutions that can exert influence on states.

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For example, human rights norms have, through the operations of the CSCE and OSCE, provided increasing leverage for the international community to curb organized state violence against minority groups. Continuing dialogue about the tension in international law between the norm of noninterference on the one hand and those of human rights and self-determination of peoples on the other may be leading toward a new international consensus on option arose to provide for the rights of minorities.

And the growing international acceptance of norms of democratic decision making are making it more legitimate for states, international donors, and NGOs to support struc- Page 8 Share Cite Suggested Citation:"Conflict Resolution in a Changing World.

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It is too soon option arose be sure that the increased prominence of these new strategies of international conflict resolution is an enduring feature of a new world system. However, it seems likely that many of the forces that have made these strategies more attractive are themselves enduring. If intrastate conflicts continue to pose serious threats to global security, if nonstate interests remain important, and if global integration makes option arose policy increasingly difficult to organize exclusively around coherent and unitary notions of national interest, conflict resolution is likely to rely more than in the past on the transnational activities of nonstate actors and on techniques that do not depend on traditional definitions of national interest.

Nation states are likely to remain important actors in international relations for some time to come, however, and the possibility of violent interstate conflict remains a serious concern. But recent events presage option arose more complex multidimensional arena of international conflict in which both state interests and nonstate actors are important parts of the mix. Under such conditions some recent trends are likely to stabilize.

For example, NGOs with humanitarian and conflict resolution missions have a good chance to remain prominent players in world politics. Their comparative advantage lies in using conflict resolution tools that do not depend directly on power politics. Although NGOs can facilitate negotiations that trade off interests, states are probably better positioned to do this.

NGOs are uniquely able to contribute by deploying the emerging tools of conflict resolution, as they have increasingly done in recent years. They have promoted conflict transformation binary options strategy minutes sponsoring option arose conflict resolution activities see Chapters 7 and 8providing training in informal dispute resolution techniques, and supporting various institutions of civil society that participate in democratic debate.

The roles for Option arose in structural prevention are sometimes more prominent than the roles for states. And they have contributed to option arose development and enforcement of new international norms by promoting and monitoring conditions of human rights, treatment of minorities, and democratic governance e.

Their continued importance will depend not only on their usefulness to diplomats in the aid-donor states but also on their acceptance by the parties to the conflicts they want to resolve. Thus, to be effective, these NGOs must be accepted by their potential clients as democratic, accountable, and true to the humanistic principles they option arose.

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They must also find ways to ensure that their activities do not make conflicts worse see Chapter If the post-Cold War world is qualitatively different from what came before, does it follow that what practitioners know about conflict resolution is no longer reliable? A provisional answer comes from the results of a previous investigation by a National Research Option arose committee that reviewed the state of knowledge relevant to preventing major international conflict, including nuclear war.

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Between and this group commissioned 14 comprehensive review articles covering major areas of knowledge about international conflict National Research Council, Stern and Druckman identified propositions that the authors of the reviews judged to be supported by the evidence available at the time. Each proposition was coded in terms of how well it stood up against a list of five political surprises of the period.

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First, the great majority of the propositions about 80 were not tested by the surprising events. Thus, these conclusions from historical experience remained as well supported as before.

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Second, of the propositions that were tested by events, most were supported by the events that occurred. This knowledge was also unchanged by the shift in the world system.