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For the first time, all of the world's characters can be represented in a uniform manner, making it feasible for the vast majority of programs to be globalized: built to handle any language in the world. In many ways, the use of Unicode makes programs much more robust and secure.

When systems used a hodge-podge of different charsets for representing characters, there were security and corruption problems that resulted from differences between those charsets, or from the way in which programs converted to and from them.

However, because Unicode contains such a large number of characters, and incorporates the varied writing systems of the world, incorrect usage can expose programs or systems to possible security attacks.

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This document describes some of the security considerations that programmers, system analysts, standards developers, and users should take into account. For example, consider visual spoofing, where a similarity in visual appearance fools a user and causes him or her to take unsafe actions.

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Suppose that the user gets an email notification about an apparent problem in their Citibank account. They realize that even what shows up in the status bar might be a lie, because clever Javascript or ActiveX can work around that. And users are likely to have these turned on, unless they know to turn them off.

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They see that it is, and use their password. However, what they saw was wrong—it is actually going to a spoof site with a fake "citibank.

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They use the site without suspecting, and the password ends up compromised. For example, "inteI. The infamous example here involves "paypaI.

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Not only was "Paypai. He or she is apparently emailing PayPal customers, saying they have a large payment waiting for them in their account.

The message then offers up a link, urging the recipient to claim the funds.

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However, the URL that is displayed for the unwitting victim uses a capital "i" Iwhich looks just like a lowercase "L" lin many computer fonts. Thus to a certain extent, the new forms of visual spoofing available with Unicode are a matter of degree and not kind.

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utr der binary option However, because of the very large number of Unicode characters overin the current versionthe number of opportunities for visual spoofing is significantly utr der binary option than where you can make easy money a restricted character set such as ASCII.

Each section presents background information on the kinds of problems that can occur, and lists specific recommendations for reducing the risk of such problems. That practice is followed here. There are no hard-and-fast rules for visual confusability: many characters look like others when used with sufficiently small sizes. Confusability also depends on the style of the font: with a traditional Hebrew style, many characters are only distinguishable by fine differences which may be lost at small sizes.

In some cases sequences of characters can be used to spoof: for example, "rn" "r" followed by "n" is visually confusable with "m" in many sans-serif fonts.

Where two different strings can always be represented by the same sequence of glyphs, those strings are utr der binary option homographs. Spoofing is not dependent on just homographs; if the visual appearance is close enough at small sizes or in the most common fonts, that can be sufficient to cause problems. Some people use the term homograph broadly, encompassing utr der binary option visually confusable strings. Two characters with similar or identical glyph shapes are not visually confusable if the positioning of the respective shapes is sufficiently different.

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It is important to be aware that identifiers are special-purpose strings used for identification, strings that are deliberately limited to particular repertoires for that purpose. Exclusion of characters from identifiers does not affect the general use of those characters, such as within documents.

Unicode Security Considerations

The remainder of this section is concerned with identifiers that can be confused by ordinary users at typical sizes and screen resolutions. There is another kind of confusability, where the goal is not to "fool the user", but rather to "slip by a gatekeeper". The real goal is to fool mechanical gatekeepers, such as spam detectors, while being recognizable to an end user.

It is also important utr der binary option recognize that the use of visually confusable characters in spoofing is often overstated. Moreover, confusable characters account for a small proportion of phishing problems: most are cases like "secure-wellsfargo. There is a natural desire for people to see domain names in their own languages and writing systems; English speakers can understand this if they consider what it would be like if they always had to type Web addresses with Japanese characters.

Automation and remote terminal units

IDNs represent a very significant advance for most people in the world. However, the larger repertoire of characters results in more opportunities for spoofing.

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Proper implementation in browsers and other programs is required utr der binary option minimize security risks while still allowing for effective use of non-ASCII characters.

Internationalized Domain Names are, of course, not the only cases where visual spoofing can occur. Wherever strings are used as identifiers, this kind of spoofing is possible. IDNs provide a good starting point for a discussion of visual spoofing, and are the focus of the next part of this section.

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Because the concepts and recommendations discussed here can be generalized to the use of other types of identifiers, both [ IDNA ] and [ IDNA ] will be used in examples. Fortunately the design of IDN prevents a huge number of spoofing attacks.

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All conformant users of [ IDNA ] are required to process domain names to convert what are called compatibility-equivalent characters into a unique form using a process called compatibility normalization NFKC —for more information on this, see [ UAX15 ].

This processing eliminates most possibilities for visual spoofing by mapping away a large number of visually confusable characters and sequences.

See the example in Table 1, Safe Domain Names. The String column shows the actual characters; the UTF column shows the underlying encoding and the Punycode column shows the internal format of the domain name.